The name Scotland is derived from the Latin name ” denver car accident lawyer Scoti “which the Romans used to the Gaelic population in contemporary Scotland and Ireland to indicate – in contrast to the Picts . The Scoti knew their power in the current Scotland to expand and mingled with the Pictish population. From the eleventh century, the term “Scotia” for Scotland north of the River Forth . From the late Middle Ages the term was given its current meaning.
The national flag of Scotland – known as the Saltire or St Andrew’s cross – was (according to legend) as early as the ninth century and would use it the oldest national flag in the world. Since 1606 , the flag is part of the Union Jack . There are many official and unofficial national symbols, including the thistle , the national floral emblem, the declaration of independence from 1320 ( Declaration of Arbroath ), the textile pattern tartan that often differs from clan to clan, and the Lion Rampant flag.
Flower of Scotland is often regarded as the national anthem of Scotland and is played with such football – and football games where the national team plays. Scotland the Brave is used for the Scottish team at the Commonwealth Games . Since Scotland its own parliament , there is a broader discussion arose. Other candidates for the national anthem are: Highland Cathedral , Scots Wha Hae and A Man’s A Man for A ‘That .
St. Andreasdag (30 November) is a national holiday and since 2007 a Bank holiday . Burns’ Night (on or around January 25), however, exuberantly celebrated. Tartan Day is Denver Divorce Attorney a recent newcomer from Canada .
See History of Scotland for the main article on this topic.
The history of Scotland begins around 14,000 years ago when the first people to the region of the current invaded Scotland when the ice age ended. There are many objects from the Stone Age , Bronze Age and Iron Age found, but few written sources are preserved.
The written history of Scotland begins with the arrival of the Roman Empire in Britannia – the current England , Wales and Scottish Lowlands . North areas were inhabited by the Picts , the area was known to the Romans as Caledonia . Since Scotland is on the edge of Europe, has long been assumed that the elements of civilization but slowly came to the country. Recent research has shown that some developments earlier and more advanced in Scottish society permeated than originally thought. The sea was an important link.
Due to the geographical orientation of Scotland and its strong dependence on trade routes by sea, the country had many contacts with the Baltic States , Ireland, France and the Low Countries . After the Acts of Union with Scotland and England were connected in the Kingdom of Great Britain , the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution Scotland was one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial heart of Europe . After World War II plunged the industrial sector in Scotland which was particularly hard hit. In recent decades, however, Scotland revives a kind of cultural and economic renaissance, mostly due to a resurgence in the financial sector, the discovery of oil under the North Sea and the limited self-government.
Border between Scotland and England
See Administrative division of Scotland for the main article on this topic.
For local government, Scotland is currently divided into 32 council areas ( English : council areas ). This subdivision was introduced in 1996.
From 1975 to 1996, the country divided into regions .
The traditional division into counties (counties) remains very popular in the language and is also used by the post.
For ceremonial purposes the country is divided into Lieutenancy areas that roughly but not completely correspond with the counties.
See Geography of Scotland for the main article on this topic.
The mainland of Scotland occupies about one third of the total land mass of Great Britain , that northwest of Continental Europe lies. The total area of the country is 78,772 km ²,  . The only land border that Scotland, with England and is 96 kilometers long and runs from the River Tweed on the east coast to the Solway Firth on the west coast. West of Scotland lies the Atlantic Ocean and east of the North Sea . Ireland is only 30 kilometers from the Kintyre peninsula removed while Norway 305 km to the east and the Faroe Islands 270 km to the north.
The current borders of Scotland are largely established by the Treaty of York in 1237 between Scotland and the Kingdom of England  and the Treaty of Perth in 1266 between Scotland and Norway.  Exceptions here are the Isle of Man in the fourteenth century was lost to England and now a British Crown Possession is, the Orkney and Shetland Islands in 1472 were taken over from Norway and Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1482 was conquered by the English.
The geographical center of Scotland lies a few kilometers from the village of Newtonmore in Badenoch .  With 1344 meters above sea level is the summit of Ben Nevis, the highest point of the country, while the River Tay, with 190 kilometers the longest river.  
Geology and geomorphology
The Quirang on the island of Skye in the Scottish Highlands .
See Geology of Scotland for the main article on this topic.
During the glaciations in the Pleistocene was in Scotland are entirely covered by an ice sheet and the landscape is significantly altered by the ice sheets. From a geological perspective, the country comprises three distinct areas:
Highlands and Islands
The Highlands and islands lie north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault which runs from Arran to Stonehaven . This part of Scotland is mainly composed of old rocks from the Cambrian and Precambrian age that were printed up during the Caledonian orogeny . It is intersected by igneous rocks of a later period which remains the current mountains like the Cairngorms and the Cuillins forms. An important exception to the above layers of Old Red Sandstone at the coast of the Moray Firth which numerous fossils hostels. The Scottish Highlands are generally mountainous and the greatest heights of the British Isles can be found here. Scotland has more than 790 islands that are divided into four main groups: Shetland , Orkney , the Inner Hebrides and Outer Hebrides . There are numerous freshwater lakes including Loch Lomond and Loch Ness .
The Central Lowlands are a Rift Valley formations mainly from the Paleozoic exists. Many of the sediments have a significant economic value, since here the coal and iron from the soil was removed by the Industrial Revolution in Scotland have made possible. In the past there was volcanic activity in this area to find Arthur’s Seat in Edinburgh is a remnant of a volcano . This area is relatively low-lying hills as though the Ochils and Campsie Fells located nearby.
See the climate in Scotland for the main article on this topic.
See Scots (people) for the main article on this topic.
Almost all the inhabitants of credit card offers Scotland today speak English . Many also speak Scots , Lowland Scots , a Germanic language closely related to English, which is still very different from Standard English. Approximately 70,000 people, mostly from the western islands still speak native Scottish Gaelic .
Historically, Scotland is divided into two cultural areas: the southern lowlands where mainly English was spoken, and still partly Gaelic-speaking Highlands in the north.
Many Scots are Protestant : The Presbyterian Church of Scotland has about 600,000 members, representing approximately 12% of the population. Approximately 800,000 people are Catholic .
Scotland is the French name etymologically from the Latin Scotia and corresponding to the English Scotland , which means land of the Scots .
The word Scotia was used by Romans to describe the Gaels who inhabited the v th century the territory of present Scotland 4 as well as Ireland . The great philosopher, Johannus Scotus, for example, was Irish, not Scottish, despite its name. In medieval Latin , scotti were referring to the Irish people and by extension, the Gaels of Scotland 5 .
Bede uses the term national Scottorum (word for word: Nation of Scots ) to designate the people from Ireland who settled on some land Picts (“Scottorum nationem in Pictorum recipit parte”). This can be interpreted as the arrival of people called Gaels in the kingdom of Dal Riada , on the west coast of Scotland.
The x th century , the word Scot is mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicles and refers to the “land of the Gaels”, that is to say, Ireland. The term Scottorum appears again, used by an Irish king in 1005 . The term Imperator Scottorum is added to the name Brian Bóruma by Mael Suthain in the Book of Armagh 6 . We think Brian Bóruma then had rule over the Scots.
This name was somewhat copied by the Scottish kings. We attribute the expression Basileus Scottorum to Edgar I st of Scotland ( one thousand and seventy-four – 1107 ) 7 . Alexander I st of Scotland (c. 1078 – 1124 ) used the expression Rex Scottorum on its seal, as did his successors until to Jacques II 8 .
History martial arts denver
Main articles: History of Scotland and Chronology of Scotland .
See also the lists of Scottish kings , the kings of the Picts and legendary kings of Scotland .
Main article: Prehistoric Scotland .
The glaciers that covered the entire surface of Scotland today, have destroyed all traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic . Historians believe that the first groups of hunter-gatherers arrived on the scene 12,800 years before Christ , after melting of the ice cap at the end of the last ice age 9 , 10 . Groups of settlers began building the first known permanent houses on Scottish soil around 9,500 BC, and the first villages to 6000. One well-preserved Skara Brae on Mainland in the Orkney dates from this period. Houses, tombs and places of worship in Neolithic exist in large numbers and in good condition in the Northern Isles and Outer Hebrides , where the few trees led to the construction of stone buildings instead of 11 .
Because of its remote geographical position, the Caledonia was less affected by the invasions that England let alone the continental regions. After the conquest of England (ca. 45 AD) by Claude , the Romans were unable or chose not to pacify Scotland. They have entrenched themselves behind the wall that the Emperor Hadrian had built around 120 AD, a sort of ” Chinese wall “that manages to somehow contain the Picts until 364 . The Antonine Wall built further north was no longer effective.
According to the Greek Claudius Ptolemy , the various peoples who live in Scotland then were the Brigantes , the Caledonii the Votadini the Selgovae the Novantae the Damnonii the Verturiones , etc..
See also, for the period from 900 to 1286: Scotland in the Middle Ages .
All of which becomes human Scotland is composed of different peoples: the PICTI Celts, Britons , Celts, Scots from Ireland, the Angles , the Vikings came from Norway .
In 563, the Irish monk Columcille (or Columbkill, or Colomba – not to be confused with Columba ) founded a monastery on the Bins island of Iona in the kingdom scot of Dal Riada . This prestigious Abbey will launch missions not only on the Dal Riada, but as far as the land of the Picts.
The various indigenous kingdoms will be absorbed by the kingdom of the Scots and form the Scotia , that is to say, Scotland in French. These kingdoms were:
the Kingdom of Fortriú (Pictish);
the kingdom of Fib (Pictish);
the kingdom of Gododdin (Breton, heir Votadini ), absorbed by the Northumbrian Saxon;
the kingdom of Strathclyde (Breton);
the kingdom of Dal Riada (scot).
In 1603 , King Jacques VI of Scotland also became Jacques I st of England and Ireland .
In 1701 , the British parliament settled the succession to the throne of England in favor of the House of Hanover, but the Scottish parliament for a time threatened to make a different choice, perhaps for the son of the deposed King Jacques II, “Jacques III and VIII” friend of the King of France, who could claim to three thrones. But the Scottish Parliament, for most merchants, financial worries and had therefore yielded to the English threat to cease all trade with them and to prohibit the free border traffic.
After lengthy negotiations, the Treaty of Union was signed and the “United Kingdom of Great Britain “was born.
A Scottish Parliament was established by the “Scotland Act” adopted by the British Parliament in 1998 . A referendum was held earlier in September 1997 and a large majority was in favor of the creation of a parliament. This is the first Scottish Parliament since 1707 . It consists of 128 deputies.
The first elections to the Scottish Parliament were held on 6 May 1999 . The first session of parliament was held on 12 May 1999 . Elections were then held in 2003 . The Labour Party was then the largest party (29.3% and 50 seats) just missing the majority. With the support of the Liberals (11.8% and 17 MPs) of the Scottish Liberal Democratic Party , the Labour Party formed the Scottish Executive , that is to say, the government Bankruptcy of Scotland.
There was a significant presence of elected separatist SNP (20.9% and 27 seats) (Scottish National Party, center left – indeed, it was the second largest party in Parliament), socialists separatists (6.9 % and 6 seats) allocated to the SSP ( Scottish Socialist Party ) and Solidarity and environmentalists separatist Scottish Green Party (6.7% and 7 seats). The Conservatives Unionists, whose Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party , right, who opposed the creation of Parliament, had only a chosen few (18 and 15.5%).
The elections on Thursday 3 May 2007 gave the advantage to the SNP, who beat a seat the Labor Party (47 seats for the SNP, 46 Labour Party). The Conservatives and the Democrats keep roughly the same number of seats, while the Greens and other small parties are eliminated. Since the creation of the SNP, this is the first time he becomes the largest party in the Scottish Assembly. However, not having half the seats, he formed a minority government led by Alex Salmond .
Finally, in the last elections of 5 May 2011 , the SNP obtains an absolute majority of seats (69 of 129). Prime Minister, Alex Salmond, has already promised to organize a referendum on independence before the end of the new legislature, probably during the years after 2014 Commonwealth Games which will be held in Scotland, while the polls in favor of independence are increasing.
Main article: Geography of Scotland .
Simplified topographic map of Scotland.
Scotland has only one land border, south of the country, shared with England. Its maritime borders separating it from the Northern Ireland and the Faroe Islands , a territory of Denmark .
Scotland has many islands, bringing together nearly 800 islands. The top three are the Shetland , north, Orkney , off Thurso , and the Hebrides , northwest. The Isle of Skye is part of the Inner Hebrides, as well as the island of Mull . The ribs, like the fjords , are very cut and made of cliffs or rocks, but we also find sandy beaches.
Mountains cover a large area. The highlights are the Ben Nevis ( 1,344 m ) and Cairn Gorm ( 1,245 m ), both strongly shaped by glaciers. Snow persists throughout the year as snowfields . Volcanism, although ancient, is visible in parts of the relief (anvil of the Old Man of Storr on the Isle of Skye , basalt columns of Staffa , dykes of Edinburgh ).
The lochs are freshwater lakes or fjords leading to narrow and deep sea They have been shaped by erosion during the last glaciation . They are thus often in glacial valleys , the glens , whose bottom is occupied by a lake or arm of sea lochs Scotland’s most famous are probably the Loch Ness , the Loch Awe , the Loch Lomond and Loch Tay , but there are hundreds. The sea lochs, just as many, include for example the Loch Long , the Loch Fyne , the Loch Linnhe and Loch Eriboll .
Climate [ change ]
The climate of Scotland is temperate oceanic , benefiting from the influence of the Gulf Stream . Rainfall is abundant, especially on the north-west. In winter, snow often there, but the snow tends to melt quickly due to temperature changes and the influence of the Gulf Stream , particularly along the coast.
However, because of its relative proximity to the Arctic Circle (Scotland is indeed located at the same latitude as southern parts of Alaska and Norway ), winters can be quite harsh, especially when the one advances within the Highlands where it can snow at the end of September. Also, when a polar air mass descends on the country, temperatures can drop so drastically in just hours. A record low was recorded in Aviemore (Highland) on 10 January 1982 with -27.2 degrees recorded at the thermometer (probably with temperatures around -40 ° C in the nearby peaks of the Cairngorms ).
Average temperatures of the summer months are usually between 20 ° and 25 ° [ref. required] .
Map land cover of Scotland
Main article: Flora of Scotland .
The flora of Scotland is an assemblage of species of plants including over 1600 species of vascular plants , more than 1,500 of lichens and nearly 1,000 bryophytes . The total number of vascular species is low compared with other countries, but bryophytes and lichens are abundant and they are in Scotland with a e-cigarette population of global importance. Several populations of rare species of ferns exist, although the impact of collectors of xix th century have jeopardized the existence of several species.
Forests are rare, because of excessive deforestation in the past or the poor soil of the mountains. The wind and the blizzard blowing on the slopes in winter does not also facilitate vegetation. The moors are covered with heather or bracken and the grass is often so rare that hundreds of square kilometers are completely unusable for agriculture . However, for several decades, the Scottish government invests in mass for the “reconstruction” of the forest heritage, and, in some parts of the country, you can sometimes meet over large areas of thousands of young fir Caledonian guaranteeing reforestation for the next twenty years.
Main article: Fauna of Scotland .
The fauna of Scotland is generally typical of the northwestern part of the European of the ecozone Palearctic , although many of the large mammals of the country have been hunted to the extinction and that human activity has also resulted the arrival of various species.
Various temperate environments of Scotland include 62 species of wild mammals, including a population of feral cats , a large number of gray seals and harbor seals and northern most colony of bottlenose dolphins .
Insect side, note the presence of midges . Tiny winged insects, the midges appear early in the summer and are in swarms. Stinging insects (females bite to feed on blood), they represent a certain annoyance at bivouacs, for campers not equipped with special nets (fine mesh).
The seas around Scotland are among the most biologically productive in the world: it is estimated that the total number of Scottish marine species exceeds 40,000. The Darwin Mounds are an important area of cold sea and deep water with coral reef discovered in 1988 . In the interior, nearly 400 genetically distinct populations of Atlantic salmon in Scottish rivers live.
Main article: Demographics of Scotland .
Scotland has four cities and six secondary cities: Glasgow (580 690 inhabitants. near 1M7 in the metropolitan area), Edinburgh (457,020 inhab.), Aberdeen (211,910 inhab.), Dundee (145,460 inhab.) , Stirling (86,200 inh.), Inverness (53,920 inh.), Ayr (46,431 inh.), Perth (44 000 inhab.), Dumfries (38,000 inh.) and Falkirk (34,071 inh.)
At the census of 2010, Scotland had 5,168,500 inhabitants 12 . According to estimates by 2004 , that number might be 5078400 now. The area of Scotland being 78 772 km 2 , the population density is then 64 people per square kilometer. About 70% of the population live in the Central Lowlands , a large and fertile valley, stretching from northeast to southwest between the cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow , and including major population centers such as Stirling , Falkirk , Perth and Dundee . Other population centers are located on the northeast coast, mainly around Aberdeen and Inverness . The city of Glasgow has the density with the highest 3292 people per km 2 , while the region of Highlands has the lowest density with only five people per km 2 .
The Scottish coasts and islands, after living a while in the city and sometimes faced unemployment, dream only of returning, even in difficult conditions, close to their logs , their landscape of water and earth mixed [ no. required] .
Near Glasgow , the roar of the shipyards of the Clyde and coal mines fell silent with the end of the last war. Because of unemployment, many young graduates emigrate to the Australia . The Scottish journalist Douglas Lindsay Hill told how the oil from the North Sea , which revived dreams of independence, was “confiscated” by England [ref. required] .
Main article: Languages of Scotland .
The English and Scottish Gaelic are both official languages of Scotland. Another language, having the status of regional language , the Scots , is also recognized under the terms of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages .
Bilingual signs in Scottish and English in the Highlands .
Example of English in the Scottish pronunciation of Renfrewshire : Which way should we go to Lochwinoch? One way is seven miles, The Other Is not aim quite so far I do not want to take it that bad because the road again.
The English is the mother tongue of 98% of the Scottish population. This is generally a strongly-accented English Scots and some lexical and grammatical peculiarities. The Scots English monolingual live in a proportion of 75% in the Central Lowlands , that is to say, in the central and southern Scotland.
The same statistics for 2001 indicated that 65,674 people aged three and older, or 1.3% of the Scottish paintball equipment population, were still able to speak, read and write in Scottish Gaelic . The largest concentrations of Scots celtophones are north-west, that is to say, in the Western Isles (or Hebrides ), the Highlands , and the region of Strathclyde and that of Edinburgh , the capital. Scottish Gaelic is hardly ever spoken in the south of Scotland. Jacques IV ( 1473 – one thousand five hundred and thirteen ), was, it seems, one of the last kings to speak Scottish Gaelic .
The Scottish English is the regional variety of English spoken in Scotland, called in English Scottish English or Scottish Standard English 13 . This is the usual written language in Scotland in the non-literary texts. It should not be confused with Scots , Germanic language closely related to but distinct from the modern English , although both names were often used interchangeably for each other, modern usage is to clearly separate the two 14 .
Scottish English [ change ]
Main article: Scottish English .
Scottish English is the result of linguistic interference between the Scots and English from the xvii th century 15 . The passage of many speakers of Scots to English is made at the cost of many compromises phonological transfers and semantics , as well as phenomena of overcorrection 16 . The spelling , the punctuation and grammar of Scottish English generally follow the use of the Oxford English Dictionary . The English of the Highlands is somewhat different from that of the Lowlands , in that it reflects a greater influence phonological, lexical and grammatical language of substrate , the Scottish Gaelic .
Despite regional variations, social, Scottish English has a number of features of pronunciation features. There are few differences of grammar with other varieties of English, although the progressive form typically occurs with greater frequency than elsewhere, for example with certain verbs of sense stand ( I’m Wanting a drink , “I want a drink “). In future, the progressive form often indicates an assumption ( You’ll be coming from Glasgow “You have to come to Glasgow”) 17 .
Scottish English has a number of little used words to the south of the UK (and other varieties of English) and some are part of general vocabulary, such as outwith ‘outside’ (rather than outside of ), wee “little” (the Scots word, also used in Irish English ), pinkie “finger, little finger” (rather than “little finger”), janitor “caretaker, guardian” (rather than caretaker ); other means of culturally specific, such as haggis and caber .
Main article: Scottish Gaelic .
Example of Scottish Gaelic name of the Isle of Skye, An t-Eilean Sgitheanach .
The Scottish or Scottish Gaelic (called Gàidhlig compared with Gaeilge spoken in Ireland ) is a Gaelic ( Celtic ) spoken in Scotland, the Highlands , the islands, and by some communities of Nova Scotia , especially in the ‘ Cape Breton ). The forced eviction of peasants by Scottish landowners in xix th century explains that the language has spread to Canada , where she fell ( Canadian Gaelic ). It is recognized by the United Kingdom as a regional language of Scotland according to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages , and since an Act of the Scottish Parliament voted on 21 April 2005 is an official language of Scotland (with ‘ English ). It is used in the bilingual road signs .
As the traditional language of the Gaels , or Scots (the Celts came from Ireland who populated the northwest of the British Isles to the v th century), Gaelic has an important place in traditional Scottish culture. It is indeed the historical language of most of Scotland today.
Scottish Gaelic had, in 2006 , 58,750 speakers.
Main article: Scots .
The Scots (Scots called in the Scots leid , the Scotch tung , etc..) is a Germanic language spoken in Scotland and Northern Ireland (in Ulster ). Derived from the old Northumbrian [ref. required] , a northern dialect of Old English spoken in the north of the Humber River, in Britain before the Norman invasion ( 1066 ) and influenced by Old Norse , brought to the island by Vikings Danish ix th century , it remains very close to the English . The Scots in particular is the idiom peculiar to regional Lowlands , where one of the dialects is the doric .
Due to differences between the dialects of Scots and non-existence of a regulatory authority, there is no spelling standard for the Scots and, despite several efforts from speakers of this language.
The Scots did not experience significant change in the pronunciation of vowels ( great vowel change ) that were developed in English. For example, the English word “town” is pronounced with a diphthong, but the equivalent word in Scots, “toun” is pronounced / tun /.
The poet Robert Burns , author among others of the song Auld Lang Syne , is one of the Scots language writers best known and most popular.
Main article: Economy of Scotland .
The economy of Scotland is closely linked to the UK and is essentially based on a capitalist system with very little intervention from the state. After the Industrial Revolution , the Scottish economy is dominated by shipbuilding , the mining and steel industry . Participation of Scotland in the British Empire enabled it to export its production worldwide. But heavy industry declined in the last part of the xx th century, leading to remarkable changes in the economy of Scotland, now based on the technology and services . The year 1980 saw the development of Silicon Valley Scottish: Silicon Glen ( Glen meaning valley in Scotland), between Glasgow and Edinburgh , home to many large technology companies came to settle in Scotland. Today, the technology industry employs 41,000 people. Companies based in Scotland are specialized in information systems, defense, electronics and semiconductors. There is also a sector development and electronic design particularly dynamic and growing, based on its links with universities and local companies. Note the presence of multinational companies such as National Semiconductor , IBM and Motorola . The other major sectors of the economy of Scotland are: banking and financial services, education, entertainment, biotechnology, transportation, oil , the gas , the whiskey , and tourism.
The gross domestic product (GDP) of Scotland is just over 74 billion pounds (in 2002), giving a per capita GDP of £ 14 651.
Edinburgh is the financial center of Scotland and the 6 th place in Europe with major companies in the financial sector based there, including the Royal Bank of Scotland (the second largest bank in Europe, the Fifth World) HBOS (which owns Bank of Scotland ) and Standard Life Insurance.
Buchanan Street in the shopping district of Glasgow.
Glasgow is Scotland’s main port and the fourth largest industrial center in the UK, accounting for more than 60% of Scottish exports. Shipbuilding, although declining since the beginning of xx th century, still accounts for much of the Scottish economy. The city is the commercial and distribution the largest and most important economically in the UK after the district of West End in London . Glasgow is also one of the twenty largest financial centers in Europe and houses the headquarters of many British companies. Other important industries in Glasgow these are textiles, chemicals, fishing, brewing and distilling.
Main article: Political System of Scotland .
Related article: Political parties and movements in Scotland .
Scotland is one of the four constituent nations of the UK , which has no single written constitution. Until the Act of Union of 1707 , Scotland was an independent nation. However, following the Acts of Union, English and Scottish parliaments were dissolved and replaced by a single parliament for the whole of Great Britain who used the buildings and the institutional system of the old English Parliament. Scottish and English crowns were united in 1603 by Jacques VI of Scotland when he became Jacques I st of England. In 1801 , the Irish in turn was built in the UK.
Until 1999 , Scotland had no national legislation specifically, despite various attempts over the years of permanently implanting a kind of Home Rule . Parliament was born after the Scotland Act of 1998 the British Parliament. This act sets out the matters on which Westminster is competent, called “reserved matters” (“reserved matters”), such as defense, foreign affairs, economic and tax policies, or laws on drugs and broadcasting. Every four years, a proportional representation allows to elect 129 MPs in Parliament.
Scotland has suffered from the mid-1970s, the same industrial crisis that Wales and northern England. The old industries, mines, coal, iron and steel, were victims of their aging and global competition. However, since 1987, economic growth in Scotland has on average been higher than in Britain as a whole and was less affected by the recession of the early 1990s that many other regions. This is due, firstly, the development of the oil industry and, secondly, implementation of leading industries in some regions affected industrially. Sales of Scottish produce (traditional products such as whiskey, cashmere or salmon), performed in Paris rose by 145% in 1995. The main customers of Scotland were the United States, France and Germany. (New York, Paris and Hamburg).
Main article: Subdivisions of Scotland .
Argyll and Bute
Perth and Kinross
Dumfries and Galloway
Main article: Law in Scotland .
Scotland has a legal system is unique in Europe combined, based on the dual basis of civil law in line with the Code of Justinian and the common law medieval. The Scottish system is comparable in particular to the South African system .
Since the Act of Union of 1707 , the legislature is shared with the rest of the UK. If the Scottish legal system is fundamentally different systems of Welsh and English, he was nevertheless influenced by it. Since the Treaty of Rome in 1957, the European law has entered on the Scottish scene, including with the European Convention on Human Rights . The Scottish Parliament , established in 1999, may legislate on certain subjects, defined by the Scotland Act (1998) .
Scottish laws differ mainly of English laws in Northern Ireland and in the fields of heritage , the criminal law , the trust , the inheritance , the proof system and family law . The commercial law and tax law , however, is somewhat different.
The civil majority is 16 years against 18 years in England, and juries usually have 15 members instead of 12.
Main article: Culture of Scotland .
The flag of Scotland.
Scottish culture is distinguished from other nations of the UK by a number of peculiarities. Indeed, it has less influenced Latin of the Roman invaders, the people Picts being remained isolated until the v th century . Strongly influenced by its relations, often conflicting, with England, Scotland, she was more influenced by the cultures of Irish and Scandinavian Middle Ages , according to the successive invaders. The Jacobite rebellions were a watershed in Scottish cultural history, inaugurating a major rapprochement with England, in the UK.
Scotland, as a nation, so has its own symbols, such as its flag, the Saltire , or the thistle , but does not have a national anthem, the anthem of the United Kingdom being the only officially recognized. The main celebrations are also unique to Scotland, whether official, as the national holiday on November 30th (the day of Saint Andrew , Saint Andrew’s Day ), or from various traditions such as Burns Night or Hogmanay . The latter, strongly marked with the Scottish cultural imprint, were exported to the New World, where there is another celebration, Tartan Day , impregnated with Scottish heritage, but ignored in Scotland.
State of Christian tradition, Scotland is predominantly Protestant , the Church of Scotland being the main movement. The Catholicism , second in number of believers, is particularly entrenched in the western islands of Scotland, where he survived the Reformation . Recent movements of immigration have introduced the Islam , alongside the Asian religions, in 2001 , about 30% of the population declared no religion.
The writer Robert Burns.
Languages and Literature
The various influences that have bathed Scotland are also reflected in a plurality of languages . Both are official, the English and Scottish Gaelic . The latter, traditional language minority now, has largely lost its place in front of the English Scottish , regional variety of modern English . The Scots , Germanic language closely related to English, is the idiom of regional Lowlands , south of the country, the writer Robert Burns was widely used in his works.
The Scottish literature is rich in writers, but two are particularly associated with him, Robert Burns and Walter Scott . If Burns is illustrated by his poetry, rooted in Scottish folklore, Scott was a founder of the historical novel . Many poets have also marked the Scottish literary history, from the Castalian Band from the Renaissance to Edwin Morgan , the current national poet. The movement of the Scottish Renaissance , early xx th century , marked a renewed interest of writers for their own cultural heritage, while in the Celtic revival of the Irish this time.
A bagpiper in traditional costume.
In terms of philosophy, the Scottish Enlightenment , the xviii th century , have developed a science of man, with thinkers like David Hume , Francis Hutcheson and Adam Smith , who continue to influence modern thought.
Music and dance
The traditional Scottish music is linked to Celtic music and is in fact remained close to the Irish music , with which it shares some instruments, like the clarsach , or harp. The bagpipe is of more recent development, and the violin it is even later. The tunes played cover a vast repertoire ranging from traditional ballads to Bands or religiously inspired, through dance tunes.
The traditional Scottish dances can be divided into three major groups. The country dances and Ceilidh dances are social dances performed by couples arranged in sets . Highland dancing they are practiced solo, the dance form has evolved in the context of the Highland Games, where he accompanied the music of the bagpipes.
The Scottish architecture was marked, since the classissime, the influence of the great figures of architecture such as Robert Adam and William Henry Playfair , in the neoclassical style, or Charles Rennie Mackintosh and the Glasgow School of Art new . Some architectural styles emerged in Scotland, as the Scottish baronial style , and he remained clean. Traditional architecture is centered on models of the black house , in the Highlands, and the tower-house , from which come many Scottish castles.
If the Scottish art dates back to Pictish, including the Pictish stones carved, and if the Middle Ages was characterized by the development of Christian art that gave birth to many illuminated manuscripts, it was not until the Enlightenment that art has really developed in Scotland. The xviii th century has seen the emergence of famous European painters – Allan Ramsay and Henry Raeburn are examples. The Royal Scottish Academy of Art was founded in the early xix th century , while the Impressionism and Art Nouveau were pregnant.
Scottish mythology stems from the wider Celtic mythology , legends of the Ulster Cycle and Fenian Cycle times have been rehabilitated at different times and by Scottish poets and bards. Some figures of popular folklore, however, are specific to countries, such as EACH uisge , horses evil haunting lochs , the banshee , a messenger from the afterlife, and brownies , malicious spirits of the home.
The Scottish cuisine is marked by the use of oats, now partly replaced by the potato, which is found in preparations such as porridge and oatcakes , but also in the haggis . Considered the national dish, it is a haggis which has spawned a whole folklore, from dinners to the Burns’ Night to the legends of the wild haggis . The whiskey is another culinary production Scottish widely disseminated abroad. Five regional productions of the fall that hard alcohol malted barley.
The Tartan is a woolen particularly prominent in the traditional Scottish costumes, whose kilt is one of the elements. Worn exclusively by men, tartan in which it is cut marks the wearer’s affiliation to a clan or region.
In July 2009, the “Gathering” (gathering) meet at Edinburgh , in Holyrood Park , 30,000 Scots, with a participation of the various clans of the Highlands and the Scottish diaspora world. This popular gathering should occur again in 2013 18 .
Main article: Religion in Scotland .
Castles, manors and mansions, often situated in exceptional, proudly display their ghosts, like the famous Fernie Castle and the equally famous and Kilconquhar government help Castle Dalhousie Castle, north of Edinburgh . Most of them cater to tourists in search of thrills for evenings of role playing. Ghosts and wandering spirits are now tracked by scientists of the study group on parapsychology from the University of Edinburgh : apparitions of ghosts in a corridor, photographic anomalies and physical contact are analyzed car insurance comparison by the methods of recording more sophisticated.
Main article: Sport in Scotland .
The sport is an important part of Scottish culture. Most popular sport, the football , practiced since the xix th century , is subject to communal rivalries, the best known is probably the antagonism between supporters of Celtic FC , Catholics, and those of the Glasgow Rangers , Protestants. Since the beginning of the creation of the Scottish Premier League , only three clubs are never descended to the second division Scottish: Celtic FC , Rangers and Aberdeen FC . Golf, appeared in the xv th century , is considered a native of Scotland. While the sport is also equipped with an elitist image, it is considered as popular in Scotland, the whole society can practice it. The Highland Games are sports competitions celebrating traditional Scottish cultural heritage and Celtic culture. They are the seat of power struggles, the best known is probably Toss the caber , throwing a tree trunk, but also music competitions and traditional dance.
The team from Scotland rugby union played every year on Six Nations tournament . Scottish rugby is consistently ranked in the top ten nations in the IRB rankings .
This list is not intended to be exhaustive, but aims to bring together as much as possible, personalities born in Scotland and have significantly influenced the history, art or science of their time.
xiii th century
William Wallace national hero (popularized outside Scotland by the film Braveheart ).
Robert the Bruce , ( 1274 – 1329 ), the most famous king of Scotland, winner of the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314 against England.
xvi th century
John Knox (c. 1515-1572), disciple of John Calvin , founder of the Reformed Church of Scotland , an enemy of the Catholic Mary Stuart .
Mary Stuart (1542-1587), famous Queen of Scots-fated.
John Napier (1550-1617), mathematician, inventor of the table of logarithms .
George Buchanan (1506-1582), renowned historian in Europe
Robert Carver (1485-1570), composer
xvii th century
John Law of Lauriston (1671-1729), economist, finance minister of France, founder of the paper money
Robert Roy MacGregor (1671-1734), alias Rob Roy , and bandit hero.
James Stirling (1692-1770), mathematician who gave an asymptotic formula for n! .
William Paterson , founder of the famous Bank of England in the 27 July 1694 , from Dumfries .
xviii th century
Thomas Reid (1710-1796), founder of the Scottish school of philosophy.
David Hume (1711-1776), born in Edinburgh , philosopher, economist and historian, one of the most important thinkers of the Scottish Enlightenment .
Adam Smith (1723-1790), born in Kirkcaldy , famous economist and founding father of the doctrine of economic liberalism .
James Watt CrossFit Denver (1736-1819), designer-key steam engine , a symbol of the industrial revolution . The power unit, the watt , named after him.
James Tytler (1742-1806), journalist, wrote and published in 1771 the first version of the famous Encyclopedia Britannica .
John Paul Jones (1747-1792), founder of the Navy , a native of Kirkcudbright .
John McAdam (1756-1836), of Ayr , in 1815 invented a method for coating roads, using crushed stone ( macadam ).
Robert Burns (1759-1796), poet.
Sir Walter Scott (1771-1832), poet and writer.
James Boswell , biographer and friend of Pascal Paoli .
xix th century
Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894), writer.
David Livingstone (1813-1873), missionary and discoverer of the sources of the Zambezi in 1865, his famous meeting with Stanley is located in 1871.
James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879), physicist, famous for having unified electromagnetism with Maxwell’s equations .
John Boyd Dunlop (1840-1921), inventor and veterinary tire rubber. The first tire factories were established in Dublin in 1889 .
James Dewar (1842-1923), chemist, inventor auto insurance quotes of processes for liquefying gases at very low temperature, co-creator of cordite .
George MacDonald , author of children’s books, very influential.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930), doctor, famous writer of xix th century, of Edinburgh , author of Sherlock Holmes .
JM Barrie (1860-1937) author of children’s play Peter Pan .
John Buchan (1875-1940) famous author of “The Thirty-Nine Steps”
Alexander Fleming (1881-1955), from Darvel, discovered penicillin on 3 September 1928 .
James Esdaile (1808-1859), surgeon concerned analgesia, has performed many major operations in India, under hypnosis, at a time when anesthesia did not exist.
xx th century
John Logie Baird (1888-1946), inventor of television .
Queen Mother (1900-2002), the mother of Queen Elizabeth the second
Alistair MacLean writer.
Deborah Kerr , (1921-2007), born in Helensburgh .
Ramsey MacDonald (1866-1937) British Prime Minister
Sean Connery (1930 -), actor, producer, born in Edinburgh .
Jackie Stewart (1939 -), driver, triple world champion of Formula 1, born in Dumbarton .
Jim Clark (1936-1968), pilot, double world champion of Formula 1, born in Kilmany.
Sir Harry Lauder (1870-1950) song-writer, music-hall entertainer
Ian Anderson (1947 -), singer, songwriter and musician, founder of the band Jethro Tull , born in Dunfermline.
Gordon Brown (1951 -), British Prime Minister, born in Giffnock
Annie Lennox , (1954 -), singer of Eurythmics
Robert Carlyle , (1961 -), actor, born in Glasgow
Ewan McGregor , (1971 -), actor, born in Crieff
Sylvester McCoy , (1943 -), actor, born in Dunoon
Simple Minds , (1975 -), rock band.
Texas , (1985 -), rock band.
Angus (1955 -) and Malcolm Young (1953 -), guitarist of Australian rock band AC / DC , born in Glasgow.
Bon Scott (1946-1980), the second singer of the same group, born in Kirriemuir.
Tom Conti (1941 -), famous actor
James McAvoy (1979 -), actor, born in Port Glasgow.
xxi th century
Sir Alex Ferguson (1941 -), current manager of Manchester United holds the record of trophies ever achieved by a football coach.
Bill Forsyth (1946 -) writer, film director (“Local Hero” and “Gregory’s Girl”)
Robby Coltraine (1950 -), actor, writer, commedien
Ian Banks (1950 -) One of the greatest writers btitanniques since 1945.
Jack Vettriano (1951 -), painter International
Ian Rankin (1960 -), crime writer
Alan Cumming (1965 -) actor, writer, director, film producer
David Coulthard (1971 -), racing driver, commentator (BBC).
Dario Franchitti (1973 -), Scottish racing driver, twice winner of the Indianapolis 500 ( 2007 and 2010 ) and husband of Ashley Judd in 2001, born in Bathgate .
David Millar (1977 -), cyclist born in Malta but Scottish by his parents.
Paul Telfer (1979 -), actor, born in Paisley.
Drew Galloway (1985 -), the employee Wrestler World Wrestling Entertainment , born in Ayr .
Andy Murray (1987 -), tennis player, finalist of the 2008 US Open and Australian Open 2010, born in Dunblane .
Paolo Nutini (1987 -), singer, composer, musician